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Dragons, Chinese symbols, and phoenixes were frequently depicted on jewellery designs. The Chinese often placed their jewellery in their graves.
Most Chinese graves found by archaeologists contain decorative jewellery. Fluted ring with a dragon head huan ; circa BC; jade nephrite ; overall: 9.
Ornament with flowers and grapes design; —; jade; Shanghai Museum China. Hat ornament; 18th—19th century; gold, gilded metal, kingfisher feathers, glass and semiprecious stones; various dimensions; Metropolitan Museum of Art New York City.
The Indian subcontinent has a long jewellery history, which went through various changes through cultural influence and politics for more than 5,—8, years.
Because India had an abundant supply of precious metals and gems, it prospered financially through export and exchange with other countries. While European traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India enjoyed a continuous development of art forms for some 5, years.
By BC, the peoples of the Indus Valley were creating gold earrings and necklaces, bead necklaces, and metallic bangles. Before BC, prior to the period when metals were widely used, the largest jewellery trade in the Indus Valley region was the bead trade.
Beads in the Indus Valley were made using simple techniques. First, a bead maker would need a rough stone, which would be bought from an eastern stone trader.
The stone would then be placed into a hot oven where it would be heated until it turned deep red, a colour highly prized by people of the Indus Valley.
The red stone would then be chipped to the right size and a hole bored through it with primitive drills. The beads were then polished.
Some beads were also painted with designs. This art form was often passed down through the family. Children of bead makers often learned how to work beads from a young age.
Persian style also played a big role in India's jewellery. Each stone had its own characteristics related to Hinduism. Jewellery in the Indus Valley was worn predominantly by females, who wore numerous clay or shell bracelets on their wrists.
They were often shaped like doughnuts and painted black. Over time, clay bangles were discarded for more durable ones. In present-day India , bangles are made out of metal or glass.
Although women wore jewellery the most, some men in the Indus Valley wore beads. Small beads were often crafted to be placed in men and women's hair.
The beads were about one millimetre long. A female skeleton presently on display at the National Museum, New Delhi, India wears a carlinean bangle bracelet on her left hand.
Kada is a special kind of bracelet and is widely popular in Indian culture. They symbolize animals such as peacock, elephant, etc.
According to Hindu belief, gold and silver are considered as sacred metals. Gold is symbolic of the warm sun, while silver suggests the cool moon. Both are the quintessential metals of Indian jewellery.
Pure gold does not oxidise or corrode with time, which is why Hindu tradition associates gold with immortality. Gold imagery occurs frequently in ancient Indian literature.
In the Vedic Hindu belief of cosmological creation, the source of physical and spiritual human life originated in and evolved from a golden womb hiranyagarbha or egg hiranyanda , a metaphor of the sun, whose light rises from the primordial waters.
Jewellery had great status with India's royalty; it was so powerful that they established laws, limiting wearing of jewellery to royalty.
Only royalty and a few others to whom they granted permission could wear gold ornaments on their feet. This would normally be considered breaking the appreciation of the sacred metals.
Even though the majority of the Indian population wore jewellery, Maharajas and people related to royalty had a deeper connection with jewellery.
The Maharaja 's role was so important that the Hindu philosophers identified him as central to the smooth working of the world. He was considered as a divine being, a deity in human form, whose duty was to uphold and protect dharma, the moral order of the universe.
Navaratna nine gems is a powerful jewel frequently worn by a Maharaja Emperor. It is an amulet, which comprises diamond, pearl, ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz, cat's eye, coral, and hyacinth red zircon.
Each of these stones is associated with a celestial deity, represented the totality of the Hindu universe when all nine gems are together.
The diamond is the most powerful gem among the nine stones. There were various cuts for the gemstone. Indian Kings bought gemstones privately from the sellers.
Maharaja and other royal family members value gem as Hindu God. They exchanged gems with people to whom they were very close, especially the royal family members and other intimate allies.
India was the first country to mine diamonds , with some mines dating back to BC. India traded the diamonds, realising their valuable qualities.
Historically, diamonds have been given to retain or regain a lover's or ruler's lost favour, as symbols of tribute, or as an expression of fidelity in exchange for concessions and protection.
Mughal emperors and Kings used the diamonds as a means of assuring their immortality by having their names and worldly titles inscribed upon them.
Moreover, it has played and continues to play a pivotal role in Indian social, political, economic, and religious event, as it often has done elsewhere.
In Indian history, diamonds have been used to acquire military equipment, finance wars, foment revolutions, and tempt defections. They have contributed to the abdication or the decapitation of potentates.
They have been used to murder a representative of the dominating power by lacing his food with crushed diamond. Indian diamonds have been used as security to finance large loans needed to buttress politically or economically tottering regimes.
Victorious military heroes have been honoured by rewards of diamonds and also have been used as ransom payment for release from imprisonment or abduction.
Pendant probably with Siddha ; 8th-9th century; copper alloy; 8. Earring with Vishnu riding Garuda ; circa ; gold set with jewels and semi-precious stones; overall: 2.
Earring with four-armed Vishnu riding Garuda with Nagas serpent divinities ; circa ; repousse gold with pearls; overall: 3. Comb with Vishnu adored by serpents; —; ivory with traces of paint; 6.
Jewellery played a major role in the fate of the Americas when the Spanish established an empire to seize South American gold.
Jewellery making developed in the Americas 5, years ago in Central and South America. Large amounts of gold was easily accessible, and the Aztecs , Mixtecs , Mayans , and numerous Andean cultures, such as the Mochica of Peru, created beautiful pieces of jewellery.
With the Mochica culture, goldwork flourished. The pieces are no longer simple metalwork, but are now masterful examples of jewellery making.
Pieces are sophisticated in their design, and feature inlays of turquoise, mother of pearl, spondylus shell, and amethyst.
The nose and ear ornaments, chest plates, small containers and whistles are considered masterpieces of ancient Peruvian culture.
Among the Aztecs, only nobility wore gold jewellery, as it showed their rank, power, and wealth. Gold jewellery was most common in the Aztec Empire and was often decorated with feathers from Quetzal birds and others.
In general, the more jewellery an Aztec noble wore, the higher his status or prestige. The Emperor and his High Priests, for example, would be nearly completely covered in jewellery when making public appearances.
Although gold was the most common and a popular material used in Aztec jewellery, jade , turquoise , and certain feathers were considered more valuable.
Priests also used gem-encrusted daggers to perform animal and human sacrifices. Another ancient American civilization with expertise in jewellery making were the Maya.
At the peak of their civilization, the Maya were making jewellery from jade, gold, silver, bronze , and copper. Maya designs were similar to those of the Aztecs, with lavish headdresses and jewellery.
The Maya also traded in precious gems. However, in earlier times, the Maya had little access to metal, so they made the majority of their jewellery out of bone or stone.
Merchants and nobility were the only few that wore expensive jewellery in the Maya region, much the same as with the Aztecs.
The turquoise was used in necklaces and to be placed in earrings. Native Americans with access to oyster shells, often located in only one location in America, traded the shells with other tribes, showing the great importance of the body adornment trade in Northern America.
Olmec seated shaman in ritual pose-shaped pendant; 9th-5th century BC; serpentine and cinnabar ; height: Pair of Maya earflare frontals; 3rd—6th century; jade jadeite ; height: 5.
Pendant with 2 bat-head worriors who carry spears; 11th—16th century; gold; overall: 7. Native American jewellery is the personal adornment, often in the forms of necklaces, earrings, bracelets, rings, pins, brooches, labrets, and more, made by the Indigenous peoples of the United States.
Native American jewellery reflects the cultural diversity and history of its makers. Native American tribes continue to develop distinct aesthetics rooted in their personal artistic visions and cultural traditions.
Artists create jewellery for adornment, ceremonies, and trade. Lois Sherr Dubin writes, "[i]n the absence of written languages, adornment became an important element of Indian [Native American] communication, conveying many levels of information.
It remains a major statement of tribal and individual identity. Within the Haida Nation of the Pacific Northwest, copper was used as a form of jewelry for creating bracelets.
Metalsmiths, beaders, carvers, and lapidaries combine a variety of metals, hardwoods, precious and semi-precious gemstones, beadwork , quillwork , teeth, bones, hide, vegetal fibres, and other materials to create jewellery.
Contemporary Native American jewellery ranges from hand-quarried and processed stones and shells to computer-fabricated steel and titanium jewellery.
Jewellery making in the Pacific started later than in other areas because of recent human settlement. Early Pacific jewellery was made of bone, wood, and other natural materials, and thus has not survived.
Most Pacific jewellery is worn above the waist, with headdresses, necklaces, hair pins, and arm and waist belts being the most common pieces. Jewellery in the Pacific, with the exception of Australia, is worn to be a symbol of either fertility or power.
Elaborate headdresses are worn by many Pacific cultures and some, such as the inhabitants of Papua New Guinea , wear certain headdresses once they have killed an enemy.
Tribesman may wear boar bones through their noses. Island jewellery is still very much primal because of the lack of communication with outside cultures.
However, the island nations that were flooded with Western missionaries have had drastic changes made to their jewellery designs.
Missionaries saw any type of tribal jewellery as a sign of the wearer's devotion to paganism. Thus many tribal designs were lost forever in the mass conversion to Christianity.
Australia is now the number one supplier of opals in the world. Opals had already been mined in Europe and South America for many years prior, but in the late 19th century, the Australian opal market became predominant.
Australian opals are only mined in a few select places around the country, making it one of the most profitable stones in the Pacific. Hei-tikis are traditionally carved by hand from bone, nephrite , or bowenite.
Nowadays a wide range of such traditionally inspired items such as bone carved pendants based on traditional fishhooks hei matau and other greenstone jewellery are popular with young New Zealanders of all backgrounds — for whom they relate to a generalized sense of New Zealand identity.
Hei-tiki ; 18th century; nephrite and haliotis shell; Breast Ornament civa vonovono ; circa ; whale ivory, pearl shell and fiber; height: Most modern commercial jewellery continues traditional forms and styles, but designers such as Georg Jensen have widened the concept of wearable art.
The advent of new materials, such as plastics, Precious Metal Clay PMC , and colouring techniques, has led to increased variety in styles.
The "jewellery as art" movement was spearheaded by artisans such as Robert Lee Morris and continued by designers such as Gill Forsbrook in the UK.
Influence from other cultural forms is also evident. One example of this is bling-bling style jewellery, popularised by hip-hop and rap artists in the early 21st century, e.
The late 20th century saw the blending of European design with oriental techniques such as Mokume-gane. Also, 3D printing as a production technique gains more and more importance.
With a great variety of services offering this production method, jewellery design becomes accessible to a growing number of creatives.
An important advantage of using 3d printing are the relatively low costs for prototypes , small batch series or unique and personalized designs.
Shapes that are hard or impossible to create by hand can often be realized by 3D printing. Popular materials to print include polyamide , steel and wax latter for further processing.
Every printable material has its very own constraints that have to be considered while designing the piece of jewellery using 3D modelling software.
Artisan jewellery continues to grow as both a hobby and a profession. With more than 17 United States periodicals about beading alone, resources, accessibility, and a low initial cost of entry continues to expand production of hand-made adornments.
Many of these jewellers have embraced modern materials and techniques, as well as incorporating traditional workmanship. More expansive use of metal to adorn the wearer, where the piece is larger and more elaborate than what would normally be considered jewellery, has come to be referred to by designers and fashion writers as metal couture.
Freemasons attach jewels to their detachable collars when in Lodge to signify a Brothers Office held with the Lodge.
For example, the square represents the Master of the Lodge and the dove represents the Deacon. Jewellery used in body modification can be simple and plain or dramatic and extreme.
The use of simple silver studs, rings, and earrings predominates. Common jewellery pieces such as earrings are a form of body modification, as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the ear.
Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as five years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring.
Over the years, more rings are added. In addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck, a woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves.
The practice has health impacts and has in recent years declined from cultural norm to tourist curiosity.
In the Americas, labrets have been worn since before first contact by Innu and First Nations peoples of the northwest coast. In the late twentieth century, the influence of modern primitivism led to many of these practices being incorporated into western subcultures.
Many of these practices rely on a combination of body modification and decorative objects, thus keeping the distinction between these two types of decoration blurred.
In many cultures, jewellery is used as a temporary body modifier; in some cases, with hooks or other objects being placed into the recipient's skin.
Although this procedure is often carried out by tribal or semi-tribal groups, often acting under a trance during religious ceremonies, this practice has seeped into western culture.
Many extreme-jewellery shops now cater to people wanting large hooks or spikes set into their skin. Most often, these hooks are used in conjunction with pulleys to hoist the recipient into the air.
This practice is said to give an erotic feeling to the person and some couples have even performed their marriage ceremony whilst being suspended by hooks.
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Popularity rank by frequency of use Juwelen The art of the Maison Boucheron is also in the ability to seek out extraordinary gemstones that are full of emotion.
To him, a stone was deemed exceptional if it had a special quality; the capacity to project an inner beauty and strength.
This is why Boucheron creations have always offered a mix of the most precious and the most original stones. Until today, the precision of mechanisms, balance between forms and materials, and refinement of ornaments are the distinctive features of Boucheron watches that witness the greatest moments in the life of their bearers.